Tuesday, August 22, 2017

Choose to Fuse: Tips and Tools for Using Fusibles for Appliqué

Welcome to the Back-To-School Blog Hop! I chose to talk about fusible products for appliqué since that is predominately how I create these days, and I want to share with you some things I have learned that helped set me on my current fusible appliqué path. (If you’d like to see some of my work, head over to the My Quilts gallery page, where the first eight pieces you’ll see all use fusible appliqué.) Maybe you’ll be infused with a new-found enfusiasm for fusing!

Types of fusible webbing products
Part of what makes fusible products so confusing is that there are so many different ones and everybody has an opinion about which one is the best. In reality, there is no one best fusible product. They all have slight differences, and what works best for you will depend on your particular preferences. Since most of my appliqué pieces are meant to hang on a wall, I am not as concerned about the feel of the fabric after fusing as I am about the ease of transferring and cutting out my design. Others want the softest fusible possible for use in quilts that need to be comfy and not stiff. But how do you know what you are going to get when you see the profusion of fusible products out there?

It helps to know that there are three main types of fusible webbing (and here I am only talking about fusible webbing, which is meant to fuse two fabrics together, not fusible interfacings, which bump up the thickness and body of the fabric they are fused to). They are:

  • Single paper-backed
  • Double paper-backed
  • No paper at all just webbing floating free in the breeze (stop me if my terminology is getting too technical here.)

Single paper-backed fusibles include Wonder Under (regular and heavy duty) Heat-n-Bond (Lite and Ultrahold), and Soft Fuse Premium. With these, you trace or draw your design onto the paper backing, then iron it with the fusible side against the wrong side of your fabric. You can then cut out your design from the drawn lines, remove the paper, and iron your shape onto your background fabric. These are the ones I prefer and find the easiest to use. (The exception to this is Pellon EZ Steam. Though it is paper-backed, you only keep the paper on while you trace your design onto the fusible itself. You then remove the paper, revealing the sticky side of the fusible, which you press down onto the back of your fabric. You can then cut out your designs from the lines you drew and iron to you background as usual.)

Double paper-backed include the Steam-a-Seam 2 products (regular and Lite). With these, you draw or trace on the gridded paper, then remove the other paper, revealing fusible that has a sticky surface. Rather than ironing down at this point, you use pressure to stick the fusible and backing to the wrong side of the fabric. You then cut out your shape, remove the backing, and iron to the background fabric. Many people love these for the ability to make things stick together before the final ironing. Personally, I dislike it because it doesn’t stick well enough when cutting and two papers to trace through gets bulky.

Free-love (or non-paper-backed) fusibles are rarer and the most commonly used and known is Mistyfuse. With no backing, you have to have some other way of getting your design transferred and one way I have seen is by using parchment paper. (See below for a few details on how to use this.) Mistyfuse is by far the softest, both before and after washing, of every fusible product I have used, so if that is important to you this will give you the best results.

(I actually collected 10 fusible products because I wanted to know what all the different types were and how they worked, but in the process I ended up conducting an informal performance test of all of them. If you are interested in those results, I will be doing a follow-up post within the next couple of weeks.)

Tools and Tips
Whatever fusible you choose, here are some tools and tips for using them that can help make your fusing a little easier:

A light box 

Although you can often trace designs onto fusible backing without illuminating it from behind, light will help a lot and your poor tired eyes will eventually thank you. The cheapest and most easily obtainable light box is of course a nice big window. You can tape your design to the window, hold your fusible on top of it (fusible backings tend to not like tape very much) and trace your design. I can tell you from experience that unless you have very good upper body strength, this gets tiring and even painful after a while. The newest models of light boxes are actually thin tablets with an LED light inside and can be adjusted for brightness. You can use these at a table or even on your lap as they don't get hot.

A mechanical pencil

With the exception of Pellon EZ Steam and Mistyfuse, you will be tracing your designs onto the paper backing of a fusible and these papers are treated so that they will easily peel away after ironing. This means they don’t take ink very well—ink tends to just bead up and smear away. Pencil works beautifully, however a standard number two pencil will lose its sharpness pretty quickly and you’ll find your line getting thicker and thicker as you draw. A mechanical pencil keeps a nice thin line no matter how big your piece and you don’t have to stop to sharpen again and again.

Parchment paper 

In the case of a product like Mistyfuse, which has no paper backing, you may need to draw your design onto something that can be peeled away later, and parchment paper is perfect for this. Parchment paper is treated with silicone, which is why food doesn’t stick to it. If you place your Mistyfuse on the wrong side of your fabric, lay a piece of parchment over the Mistyfuse and iron, the Mistyfuse will adhere to the fabric and the parchment will stick to the Mistyfuse until (after cooling) you are ready to peel it off. Parchment paper is not the same as wax paper or butcher paper or freezer paper—only parchment paper will work in this application.

Appliqué pressing sheet

The Goddess Sheet (made by the same company that makes Mistyfuse) and the Appliqué Pressing Sheet by Bear Thread designs are two examples of this type of product. If you need to press appliqué pieces and there is a chance of some of the fusible web being exposed, a pressing sheet will allow heat to pass through but the fusible won’t stick to it and won't get on your iron. (Parchment paper works as well, but a pressing sheet can be reused indefinitely.)

Dryer sheets 

If you do get fusible web on your iron (and it happens to us all), run your hot iron over a dryer sheet. Should come right off.  I keep a handful near my ironing board

Comfortable scissors 

As with so many things, this is subjective, but it’s worth finding the one that works best for you. Appliqué shapes that are somewhat detailed may be easier to cut out with smaller scissors rather than your big ol’ fabric shears, but go too small and your hands will cramp. The small Fiskars on the right are what I use most often because the blades are thin, pointy, and sharp, but they do make my hands hurt after a while. The spring-loaded Fiskars on the left are much easier on my hands, but though the blades are relatively small, they are not as thin and pointy as the others. The Tim Holtz blades in the center have big handle grips, very pointy blades, and are slightly serrated, which some people like (I prefer a smooth blade).


I find that the paper backings on some fusibles peel away easier a day or two after ironing and cutting. If I need to peel it off sooner, or if I just have one that’s being stubborn, I score the paper with the point of a pin. I can then peel away from the scoring line rather than the edge of the appliqué piece (which also saves my edge from fraying). Straight pins are much better for this than the point of a pair of scissors or a seam ripper, which could tear your fabric.

My last piece of advice is for those who, like me, have refused fusibles and machine appliqué because the zig-zag, or satin stitch, or blanket stitch you tried to use just didn’t look as nice as you wanted. Many, many people love the look of the stitching on the outer edge of an appliqué piece, but I never have, at least not when I do it and that could be because I am nearsighted and can see very, very well up close (nearsighted people tend to be a little nitpickier). But then I noticed my friend Kimberly always used straight stitch. “What is this sorcery,” I cried, and she was like, “Dude, it’s so much easier and it works fine.” And she’s right. I have done all of my appliqué pieces since then with straight stitch as close to the edge as I can get and it made all the difference for me. If you cannot see well enough to get very close to the edge, you may have some fraying beyond your stitch line, more so if you wash your piece. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, just something to keep in mind. Some people like to do a double line of straight stitching just for security’s sake, but I never have. (This doesn't mean straight stitch is the best option for everyone, but it is for me and could be for you. Always - whatever works best for you is what is best. Period.)

I hope my effusiveness about fusibles has been illuminating. Feel free to ask questions in the comments or share your own tips. And please visit all the other fine folks on the hop for lots of great info and advice:

Day 1 – August 15 – Sam Hunter: How to spray baste a BIG quilt – www.huntersdesignstudio.com  
Day 2 – August 16 – Mandy Leins: Thread Dread: removing stray bits after quilting – www.mandalei.com
Day 3 – August 17 – Nancy Stovall: The Sweet Creamy Filling – www.justquiltingpdx.com
Day 4 – August 18 – Ebony Love: 7 Indispensible feet for your sewing machine – www.LoveBugStudios.com
Day 5 – August 19 – Michelle Freedman: Machine throat plates – www.designcamppdx.blogspot.com
Day 6 – August 20 – Teresa Coates: Edge/Under/Top stitching – www.crinkledreams.com
Day 7 – August 21 – Kelly Cole: Ten ways to regain your sew-jo – www.vintagefabricstudio.com
Day 8 – August 22 – Megan Dougherty: Choose to Fuse: tips for working with fusibles for appliqué – www.thebitchystitcher.com <—- you are here!
Day 9 – August 23 – Kim Lapacek: Tricks to being productive while hauling your kids around – www.persimondreams.blogspot.com
Day 10 – August 24 – Yvonne Fuchs: Circuitboard quilting on Domestic and Longarm Machines – www.quiltingjetgirl.com
Day 11 – August 25 – Sandi Hazlewood: Chain Piecing Quilt Blocks Tips – www.craftyplanner.com
Day 12 – August 26 – Juliet van der Heijden: Paper-piecing with children – www.thetartankiwi.com
Day 13 – August 27 – Maddie Kertay: Fabric folding for any storage solution – www.badassquilterssociety.com
Day 14 – August 28 – Cath Hall: Working with Lawn fabric – www.wombatquilts.com
Day 15 – August 29 – Tracy Mooney: Tips for the perfect seam – www.sewmuchcosplay.com
Day 16 – August 30 – Teri Lucas: How to bury thread – www.terificreations.com
Day 17 – August 31 – Debby Brown: Securing machine quilting knots – www. higheredhands.blogspot.com
Day 18 – September 1 – Flaun Cline: How to put some sparkle in your fabric pull (part 1) – www.ipleadquilty.com
Day 19 – September 2 – Jessica Darling: How to put some sparkle in your fabric pull (part 2) – www.jessicakdarling.com
Day 20 – September 3 – Trish Frankland: A bigger blade really IS better?! – www.persimondreams.blogspot.com
Day 21 – September 4 – Lynn Krawczyk: Build a simple design with hand stitching – www.smudgeddesignstudio.com
Day 22 – September 5 – Jane Davidson: How to make scrappy HSTs – www.quiltjane.com
Day 23 – September 6 – Linda Pearl: Low cost tips for organizing your sewing room – www.onequiltingcircle.com
Day 24 – September 7 – Christa Watson – Top 10 tips for quilting on a domestic machine – www.christaquilts.com
Day 25 – September 8 – Sarah Nunes: To Starch or Not to Starch – www.berrybarndesigns.com
Day 26 – September 9 – Suzy Webster: Testing fabric for bleeding – www.websterquilt.blogspot.com
Day 27 – September 10 – Sarah Goer: Machine bind your quilts like a pro – www.sarahgoerquilts.com
Day 28 – September 11 – Vanda Chittenden: Beginner paper-piecing tips – www.chittenden.co.za
Day 29 – September 12 – Cheryl Sleboda: Needle threading tips – www.muppin.com
Day 30 – September 13 – Kim Niedzwiecki – Different thread weights and when to use them – www.gogokim.com
Day 31 – September 14 – Sandra Healy: Conquer Your Fear of Machine Appliqué – www.sandrahealydesigns.com
Day 32 – September 15 – Sandra Starley: The Basics of Antique Quilt Collecting – www.utahquiltappraiser.blogspot.com

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Humor posts are happening!

My new humor column at BadAss Quilter's Society is not quite so new anymore, as my second one just went live today!

It's guild election time. Click here to read all about the candidates!

And just in case you missed last month's column:

This workshop will definitely help get your free motion quilting, um, going. Click here to learn the secret!

If you like these, please leave a comment at BAQS!

Thursday, July 6, 2017

The Bitchy Stitcher Goes BadAss!

YOU GUYS! I am thrilled, pleased, excited, and all around chuffed to announce that starting on July 13, and every second Thursday of the month thereafter, I will be publishing a brand new humor column at BadAss Quilters Society! Head BadAss Maddie Kertay is working to bring lots of new content from some amazing contributors to the free portion of her massively popular website, and when she asked me to be the humor columnist I jumped at the chance.

Now, you know me. I don’t get in bed with just anybody. But I can’t imagine anyone better in this industry for me to partner with. Maddie is a champion of free expression, and y’all know I tend to express myself pretty fucking freely. She’s a southern quilter with a wicked sense of humor so we’re practically sisters (she’s the pretty one). I met Maddie back in 2014 at Spring Quilt Market in Pittsburgh, and after a very, very rough day, I got a text from her inviting me to a nice quiet introvert-soothing dinner in her hotel room. She had no way to know just how bad the day had been or just how much I had fallen apart, but she said she had a feeling I needed a little quiet support and she was exactly right. So, I’m pretty sure she is also psychic as well. And when a psychic southern quilter extraordinaire who makes routine vibrator jokes and encourages everyone to just quilt the way they damn well please says, “Come work with me,” I listen. My mama raised me right.

I am so excited to have the opportunity to bring my twisted sensibilities to a wider audience, and I’m even happier to know that they will all be available to everyone. Be sure to follow me and BadAss Quilters Society on Facebook and Instagram so that you can get notifications each month when a new piece is posted. See you over at BAQS on July 13!

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Life Update

We have a new addition to our family!

Meet Roscoe:

Roscoe is a butt-ugly La-Z-Boy recliner with a freaking motor because this is what my life has become. I have completely destroyed the delicate feng shui of my studio in order to accommodate this beast and have it situated directly in front of the television. But, no, not because I have given up on life, but because I am having surgery. Again.

If you recall, two years ago I had part of my colon removed for diverticular disease, and though it was technically done laparoscopically, there was still a 5-inch incision in my lower abdomen. Unfortunately, the incision site herniated a few months later and in May of 2016 I had hernia repair surgery. Which was awful. Recovery was far more painful than I had ever anticipated and took a whole lot longer, too. Unfortunately, the surgery didn't work and I now have to have it re-done this Friday.

So Mama's new boyfriend is this insanely comfortable chair which for the next 2-4 weeks I will only leave in order to pee and if I can find a way around that I will. I distinctly remember the first day after the last surgery, having my husband help me out of bed so I could get to the bathroom, and I thought the pain might make me pass out, and when I finally got to the bathroom, all of that hurt so much I basically just sat there and cried. SO FUN!

Besides watching a metric shit-ton of TV (I have been saving a whole bunch of good stuff to watch), I hope to get some writing done since I now have an iPad/keyboard writing system that works. Details are still to be worked out, but if all goes well, I may have a new venue for some of that writing! Plus, I have another surprise in store, which I will hint at here:

Remember, if you subscribe to my newsletter, you will be the first to know about it and get special pricing. (And if you are worried about junk mail, if you sign up for my newsletter, I don't do ANYTHING with your email address other than send you my newsletter, and I do not send out tons of them.) And Instagram is where you will see any quilty/stitchy projects in progress, and there should be one that gets finished from my sick bed, so come find me over there: @thebitchystitcher!

Wish me luck and I'll see you in July!

Friday, May 19, 2017

Quilters Unite!

Oh, dear.

Yesterday Facebook was all up in arms because it had been discovered that some people had started a secret Facebook group just for quilters who identify with one end of the political spectrum and wanted to have a place to talk smack about the people on the other.

Except, they didn't just talk smack, apparently. They also in at least two cases, tried to get people fired. And, as though they wanted to offer up a gift to comedy writers everywhere, in one case they tried to write to a particular quilter's boss but because he is self-employed they were actually writing to the quilter himself! You cannot make this shit up.

More than enough attention has been given to these people already, but I just have to say one thing. And I know you all know this already—I mean, you are my readers, so you're pretty much the smartest, savviest internet users out there—but all of this political rage, this need to talk about The Other Side as though it is comprised of mostly pedophiles and serial killers, is being fueled, at least in part, by Facebook itself because it makes you stay on Facebook longer and see more ad stuff! Every time you scroll through your feed and you see some link to some article that's probably not even straight up reporting from a major news outlet, but is some off-brand site, your heart rate goes up just that tiny bit because the headline was written in a very particular way in order to make that happen, in order to make you feel aggrieved and insulted. Because when you feel aggrieved and insulted you start looking to your peers to bolster you, to shore you up in the face of so much travesty, and because they are also aggrieved and insulted, they do! On Facebook! And now you've all been on Facebook far longer than you would have been if you were just looking at pictures of people's chickens and you've been exposed to 20 ads instead of 2.

I also don't have to tell you that treating half the country like they are all pedophiles and serial killers doesn't actually change anything because IT'S HALF THE COUNTRY. If you get all mad and call me and all my friends stupid doo-doo heads, it doesn't make us all go, "Huh! Why yes. We ARE stupid doo-doo heads! Thank you for pointing that out! We will now completely change." No, if you call us stupid doo-doo heads, we are just going to hunker down and become more firmly rooted in whatever it is we are doing that is making you call us doo-doo heads. We can always find oh, roughly 159,000,000 other doo-doo heads to hunker down with.

And also—and again, I know you know all this but I just can't help myself—it's basically common knowledge that the best way to encourage and maintain group cohesion is to have a common enemy. So, the fact that we are all human beings who want to be safe and free and happy and want a better world for our children doesn't mean shit if we can divide up into teams and hate each other over how best to accomplish that instead of, I don't know, debating the finer points like intelligent adults or something. You are more likely to get up off your butt and vote if your vote is not just for something but also against something—or someone—else, like stupid serial killer doo-doo heads.

But I get it. I do. Hating people is fun and there seems to be a deep, primal need for it. So if we do need a common enemy to fight, we need to keep sight of what's truly important here: quilting. Are we really willing to let the entire quilting world go to war against itself and tear apart over politics? I mean, the slime alone could ruin your stash, and then where would you be? Alone and sad, with a slimy stash, that's where.

I say that we are at a crossroads. We are witnessing a threat to the very fiber of our quilty existence, but we can't exactly unite against politics itself. (See above, re: slime) But we can unite, as quilters—whether conservative, liberal, libertarian, green, socialist, Marxist, or serial killer doo-doo headian—against the real enemy: A Different Crafter Group. Which one? Doesn't matter! Let's just pick one and start a campaign to trash talk them into oblivion! It'll be fun and cathartic and we can go back to appreciating each other for our beautiful quilts and stop hating each other for manufactured bullshit that has nothing to do with quilting and everything to do with lining someone else's pockets. Here are some options:

  • Knitters. So, what the hell is the deal with knitters, right? All they're doing is knotting up a bunch of string with pointy sticks like that actually accomplishes something. I mean all that string doesn't even have any animal motifs on it! You can't exactly slap a deer head on a pile of twine, can you? And do you know what they call it when they screw up and have to unknot a whole bunch of knots? Frogging. So, you know, they're probably all French too. Assholes. 
  • Polymer Clay artists. Oh, so you basically fart around with Play-Doh and ruin perfectly good pasta machines, and we're supposed to be impressed? Can your stupid beads keep someone warm? Can you wrap someone in love with your dumb animal figurines? No. No you cannot. Shitheads. 
  • Woodworkers. One word, just one: sawdust. Asshats. 
  • Hand letterers. Goddamn calligraphers with their fancy pens and and their swirly words that nobody can even read. Since when is that loopy monstrosity an "R", for fuck's sake? Look, just because you can write a Gandhi quote that probably was actually said by Mussolini or somebody in pink princess cake lettering with glitter accents doesn't mean you should. Losers. 
  • Cross stitchers. Oooh, look at me, I'm cross stitching: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx. I would do some more, but I just bored myself into a coma. Dipshits. 

SEE? ISN'T THAT FUN? Just think of the possibilities here. We could start our own not-so-secret Facebook group where we could freely insult our chosen enemy. We could come up with a super cool name, like Several Quilters United Against Bullshit (SQUAB for short) and print up t-shirts and buttons and when we wear them and people ask us about it we can be all, "Oh, it's because I'm against bullying or bake sales or something" but really it's all about hating on the stupid knitters or potters or cake decorators or whatever it is we all finally decide on.

And if we're really lucky, we'll get them to form their own group to hate on US! Because what's the point of coming up with really clever, funny insults if your target isn't going to cleverly insult you back?

I'm telling you, this could usher in a new era of peace and understanding. Among quilters anyway. And isn't that what really matters?

Thursday, April 13, 2017

The Sea of Serpents

WARNING! Stylized and colorful representations of snakes below!

I made a quilt. I call it The Sea of Serpents.

Are you afraid of snakes? A lot of people are. One day, I was coming home from a walk and I saw a neighbor at my door. I called out to her, and she turned around and said, breathless, "Oh, Megan! Thank goodness! Is David home?"

"Yeah, he's working from home today."

"Is he scared of snakes?"

Now, I actually have no idea whether David is scared of snakes, but I knew he didn't have time to deal with one, so I told her, "I have no idea but I'm not!"

She told me her husband was out of town and a snake had gotten into their finished basement and she couldn't get it to leave. It had crawled up and into a corner between the fireplace and a wall and nothing she did would make it come down. So I said, okay, let's see what we can do.

But as we were headed over, my neighbor Sam returned from his run and she saw him. Believing, I suppose, that a man was better equipped to brave the big, bad boa in her den than little old me, she appealed to him for help instead and he, despite being terrified of snakes himself, managed to find some sort of long tong-type things and grab the poor little guy (he was quite small) and toss him out into the backyard. There may have been high-pitched squealing, not by me.

Sigh. I really wanted to touch the snake.

There are approximately 2600 species of snakes (that we know of) in the world, and about 400 of those are venomous, or about 15% In the United States, we have about 130 snake species, and 21 of them are venomous, 16%, and these are mainly in the groups of rattlesnakes, coral snakes, water moccasins (also known as cottonmouths), and copperheads.

It is estimated that roughly 5 people per year in the United States die of snake bite. Five. To work my famous math skills again, that's like a fraction of a fraction of a percent. Now there are somewhere in the range of 1000 to 8000 bites from venomous snakes per year, and that's a slightly bigger percentage of the population, like a bigger fraction of a fraction. (Stop me if all my crazy math is too much.) Even if you get bit, you probably won't die, because anti-venom is readily available.

And some people want to kill every snake they see.

The thing is, you have a much greater chance of being hit by lightning or of dying from a bee sting than from a snake bite. Snakes, for the most part, (I can't speak for that one copperhead on my parents' deck that one time—he was looking shifty) aren't sitting around going, WHO CAN I KILL TODAY? Well, they are, but only in a what's-for-lunch sort of way, not in a murder-murder-kill sort of way. They're not legless psychopaths.

It's very easy to be afraid of every single snake that exists just because a very small number of them will bite you if they think you will do them harm. But we are human. We have consciousness and reason, and we have the capability of ameliorating our own fears through understanding.

But most of all, if they are not all out to get us (and they aren't), and if they are not a vital food source for us (you can eat snake, but not many do), then I say, let them live. Better yet, let's learn to appreciate them. They really are quite beautiful.

Especially in quilty form.

The Sea of Serpents is an appliqué quilt of my own design. The beautiful longarm quilting was done by Amy Helton, whom you can find on Instagram as @longarmyogigal. I am working on a little story that goes along with it and you may not like it. It's not even remotely funny. But when I am done with it I will link to it.

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

It will.

The comedy gods smiled upon me today.

One of our toilets started running and the plumber came this morning. He's been here before and is a pretty affable guy. He rooted around in the tank for a while, and seemed to have fixed the problem, but he kept standing there looking at it and shaking his head ruefully.

"Problem?" I asked.

"How long have you had this toilet?"

"Um, we've lived here 8 years—I have no idea how long it was here before that."

He sighed. "Do you have issues with it? Like, you know, stuff not going down?"

"Oh yeah, all the time."

"Well, technically, it's fixed, but I've gotta tell you—you've got an inadequate flapper."

Dear Reader, I lost it. Just cracked up. And if you know me, you know that I'm actually quite shy in real life and I don't joke around with people I don't know. But I couldn't help myself.

"Dude! I can't believe you just called my flapper inadequate. That's a hell of a thing to say to a lady. Didn't your momma raise you better?"

Now he's laughing, but trying to explain why this particular brand and model toilet sucks, and what we should get instead if we ever need to replace it, but all I can do is think about the phrase "inadequate flapper." Finally, he leaves and tells me to have a real nice day.

"I will! Well, you know, as much as I can with an inadequate flapper." I watch him laugh and shake his head at the strange lady as he walks back out to his truck.

I tell you all this just to warn you that this phrase may pop up again here and there.

"Dammit, my machine isn't working right." "Yeah, it's probably an inadequate flapper."

"When you're paper piecing, shorten your stitch length and make sure your flapper is nice and adequate."

"Did you hear about the 20s-era woman who couldn't make it as a party girl? She was just an inadequate flapper."

And, of course:

"Thanks for the unsolicited dick pic, dude, but it looks to me like you've got yourself an inadequate flapper there."

So, now you have been duly warned. And you'll know what the hell I'm talking about if it comes up again.

Which it will.

Oh, yes. It will.